The market prize of ramie fibre is determined by grading system. MANUFACTURING AND USES The first step in the processing of ramie is degumming, which has not in the past been considered as part of the agricultural prepara- tion of the fiber, but the first step in manufacturing. It is essential to remove the excess of alkali by acetic acid treatment after chemical degumming, otherwise the fibre strength will be reduced. Generally caustic soda is used for degumming process. However, profitable growing for fibre purpose is based on the principle of as many cutting a year as possible and to produce the best results the plants requires a favourable climate with steady high temperature, a humid atmosphere and a well-distributed annual rainfall of not less than 1.125 mm. A number of small machines have been designed in various countries with the objective of extracting bast fibre from the green stems of jute and similar fibre plants and thus eliminating the need of retting. First harvesting can be done after 17 days of planting and followed by 45-60 days for the succeeding harvests. The most significant factors involved in ramie degumming are the concentration of the chemicals, temperature, time and the methods employed to ensure that the degumming liquor penetrates to all parts of the ribbons. Planters harvest ramie approximately every 60days by cutting mature bast and protect roots. A number of small machines have been designed in various countries with the objective of extracting bast fibre from the green stems of jute and similar fibre plants and thus eliminating the need of retting. Ramie fibre is a bast fibre obtained from the inner bark of the ramie stem3. The fibre is derived from the inner bast tissues of the stem. Leading producers of ramie are China, Taiwan, Korea, the Philippines and Brazil. The greater utilization of ramie depends upon the development of improved processing methods. In India it is called by different popular names such as Rhea, Popah, KhunKoora, Kurkunda etc. In some of the reported works32,35, blending of 10-15% raw or ramie partially degummed ramie with jute helps to spin good quality yarns of finer count in the range of 100-105 tex. Even though the server responded OK, it is possible the submission was not processed. The white snow boomer is not used in the textile industry on a large scale because the high cost of raw materials remains, since its production requires complex processes. Ramie was one of the principal plant fibres used in the orient for making cloth before the introduction of cotton, which took place in China about 1300 AD1. Your email address will not be published. Washing of fibre from stems immediately after decortications has been shown to remove water soluble gums which reduce the dry weight of the fibre by 8%. Spinning mills were operated in England, France and Germany towards the end of the nineteenth century. Ramie root and leaf have therapeutic use in TCM. Until recently ramie has been unknown in the ready-to-wear market in this country, but it is appearing in more garments. In a study the degumming of ramie with sodium metasilicate, alone or in combination with other alkali solutions such as sodium carbonate, trisodium phosphate and sodium metasilicate phosphate, has been reported23. In order that the fiber may lend itself more readily to the subsequent manufacturing operations, it is usually treated with an oily preparation composed in most cases of water, glycerine, wax and soap, when it is thoroughly softened, ramie is ready for processing22. Anhydrous liquid ammonia was used as a solvent for the cationic modification of ramie fiber using 2, 3-epoxypropytrimethylammonium chloride (EPTAC). The stems are green until they are mature, but then they begin to turn brown, starting at the bottom. The maximum content of fiber is also available at this point. 2. Degumming is still treated as trade secret by the mills that have perfected this art. However, the ramie plant cultivation and fiber processing have been declining in Brazil in the past decade. The SEM images showing the effect of combined degumming and bleaching. Hand and eye method and instrumental method. First harvesting can be done after 17 days of planting and followed by 45-60 days for the succeeding harvests. The existing jute grading system can also be adoptable in the case of ramie. The extracted fibrous material, after washing, should be immediately dried or degummed to prevent the development of mildew. Harvesting is done either by manually or by using mechanical harvesters. The stems of ramie grow to a height of 1 to 2.5 m. The crop is generally propagated vegetatively, using rhizome or stem cuttings. Materials. Strong band at 1026 cm–1, assigned to C–O stretching in cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin or C–O–C stretching in cellulose and hemicelluloses30. The most significant factors involved in ramie degumming are the concentration of the chemicals, temperature, time and the methods employed to ensure that the degumming liquor penetrates to all parts of the ribbons. The gums of ramie are composed of araban and xylans which are insoluble in water but easily soluble in alkaline solutions. Long staple fibres can be used for spinning, where as short fibres are using for the manufacture of papers, composites, non woven and other products39,40. Materials and Methods 2.1. The fibre is coarser and consists of hairs, projecting from the surface, its length varies considerably from 40-200 mm and the fibre diameter is around 25-30 μm. The fiber is composed of pure cellulose being resistant to microbial attacks. As the plant matures, the number of stalks increases with a corresponding increase in yields up to the fourth year, an average of 4, 7, 10 and 13 t of green stalks may be harvested per acre in each of the first 4 years, respectively and 13-17 t annually thereafter. Some users (textile mills) have lost interest in the fibre mainly because of the problems of irregularity of quality supply and as well as processing difficulties and these have further discouraged the industrial sector from promoting the use of ramie. The retting process of ramie involves lots of chemicals and is labor-intensive. Earlier so many countries tried to cultivate ramie, some of them withdrawn the cultivation due to some inevitable situations. Decortication should be completed on the day of harvest and if there are some left over, they should be kept moist by sprinkling water till decortications is done on the following day. The decorticator consists of a beater or breaker plate and a metal drum, which is equipped with steel beater blades or knives that are set at equal intervals on the periphery of the drum. During eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, ramie cultivation became established in many areas of the western world. The traditional chemical degumming method is a complex process, which is neither an eco-nomic nor an ecofriendly way, and an economic and environment- -friendly degumming method with simple process and low cost is very much needed[5]. It was used in mummy cloths in Egypt during the period 5000-3300 BC and has been grown in China for many centuries. Prolonged treatment with strong alkali and strong acids causes loss in strength of the fibre and also hydrolysis of cellulose. These characteristics make it suitable for use in the manufacture of wide variety of textiles and value added products5,6.
2020 ramie fiber processing