The shark also features two reflective g… More than 400 shark species live throughout the oceans of the world. Welcome to Aquarium-Reefers Online Store! Black/Brown Banded Cat Shark Eggs (Set of 2, Select Quantity for More) $99.99. This species can be found in the Pacific ocean, where they are particularly concentrated around the coral reefs located within the waters of Indonesia. Hatching time varies by species of shark. Blue Spot Jawfish - Mexico (Box of 2) $199.99. Brownbanded is the most common one. That long tail is unusual for a shark. In some cases, the embryo relies on the egg yolk as a food source, in which case hatching may take multiple months. The blacktip reef shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus) is a species of requiem shark, in the family Carcharhinidae, which can be easily identified by the prominent black tips on its fins (especially on the first dorsal fin and its caudal fin).Among the most abundant sharks inhabiting the tropical coral reefs of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, this species prefers shallow, inshore waters. All orders are custom made and most ship worldwide within 24 hours. Visitors to Hastings’ Blue Reef Aquarium will be able to join in with an Easter Egg Hunt with a difference on Sunday, April 20 th.. By Amber Pariona on September 29 2017 in Environment. Zebra sharks are included in this category. Actual Egg Size 4-6" Actual Shark Pup: 6-8" The third largest spread in the artificial reef lineup at 1.5 square miles (surpassed only by the Atlantic City Reef at 4 square miles and the Cape May Reef at 4.5 square miles) the Little Egg Reef suffers from a paucity of structure and only a glancing interest by anglers who prefer the likes of the nearby bottom-littered Garden State South and Garden State North reefs. Add To Cart. The whitespotted shark is relatively small, growing to only around 37 inches in length. A tiny shark egg case of unknown shark species was just found at 486 metres depth off the Great Barrier Reef. As a result, their ability to survive and reproduce affects all ocean wildlife.A shark's skeleton is composed of cartilage, rather t… Please Contact Us For Availability On Certain Items This Is Only Temporary. Or atleast give me a link to a site with them. The zebra female lays fertilized eggs in tough capsules covered with tufts of filaments, which attach the eggs to the seafloor.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eActual Egg Size 4-6\"\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eActual Shark Pup: 6-8\"\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAdult Maximum Size:\u003c\/strong\u003e 38\"\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eCare Level: Moderate - Expert\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eTemperament : \u003cspan\u003e Aggressive\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eFeeding\u003c\/strong\u003e:\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eCarnivore\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003eMinimum Tank Size\u003c\/span\u003e: 200g\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003eReef Compatible\u003c\/span\u003e: With Caution (Will eat small fish and inverts) \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eScientific Name\u003c\/strong\u003e: \u003cspan\u003eStegostomatidae\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWater Conditions:\u003cspan\u003e 65-75\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eF, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cem\u003eThe Fish pictured here are representative only and the livestock you receive may vary in pattern, coloration and shape.\u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e","published_at":"2020-07-13T16:07:12-07:00","created_at":"2020-07-13T16:07:11-07:00","vendor":"Aquarium-Reefers Online Store","type":"Saltwater Fish","tags":["Sharks"],"price":79999,"price_min":79999,"price_max":79999,"available":true,"price_varies":false,"compare_at_price":null,"compare_at_price_min":0,"compare_at_price_max":0,"compare_at_price_varies":false,"variants":[{"id":31896397938801,"title":"Default Title","option1":"Default Title","option2":null,"option3":null,"sku":"","requires_shipping":true,"taxable":true,"featured_image":null,"available":true,"name":"Zebra Shark Egg","public_title":null,"options":["Default Title"],"price":79999,"weight":2268,"compare_at_price":null,"inventory_management":"shopify","barcode":"","requires_selling_plan":false,"selling_plan_allocations":[]}],"images":["\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0024\/9570\/9297\/products\/ZebraSharkEggCases1.jpg?v=1594681634","\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0024\/9570\/9297\/products\/ZebraSharkEggCases.jpg?v=1594681634"],"featured_image":"\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0024\/9570\/9297\/products\/ZebraSharkEggCases1.jpg?v=1594681634","options":["Title"],"media":[{"alt":null,"id":7166180196465,"position":1,"preview_image":{"aspect_ratio":0.667,"height":1200,"width":800,"src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0024\/9570\/9297\/products\/ZebraSharkEggCases1.jpg?v=1594681634"},"aspect_ratio":0.667,"height":1200,"media_type":"image","src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0024\/9570\/9297\/products\/ZebraSharkEggCases1.jpg?v=1594681634","width":800},{"alt":null,"id":7166180229233,"position":2,"preview_image":{"aspect_ratio":2.275,"height":611,"width":1390,"src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0024\/9570\/9297\/products\/ZebraSharkEggCases.jpg?v=1594681633"},"aspect_ratio":2.275,"height":611,"media_type":"image","src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0024\/9570\/9297\/products\/ZebraSharkEggCases.jpg?v=1594681633","width":1390}],"requires_selling_plan":false,"selling_plan_groups":[],"content":"\u003cp\u003eZebra sharks are Long and sleek,\u003cb\u003e \u003c\/b\u003ecan wriggle into reef crevices and caves to hunt for their favorite food. More in Science & Environment See more. This behavior serves to protect the embryo, allowing for its full development. Juveniles are dark brown with white zebralike stripes, but adults are tan with brown leopardlike spots. Australia’s seadragons: masters of disguise. Amazingly, during only the second dive on the first Coral Sea voyage in May 2020 in 486 m depth off Osprey Reef, an egg case was seen by the Falkor team on a coral colony. White Spotted Bamboo Shark ~ Reef dwellers ~ EGG White Bamboo Shark White Bamboo Shark Egg: Scientific classification; Kingdom: Animalia: Phylum: Chordata: Class: Chondrichthyes: Subclass: Elasmobranchii: Order: Orectolobiformes: Family: Hemiscylliidae: Genus: Chiloscyllium: Species: C. plagiosum: FAST FACTS Scientific Name: Chiloscyllium plagiosum Size: Up to 33 inches long, Males. Reef HQ, formerly known as the Great Barrier Reef Aquarium, was opened on 24 June 1987 and is the world's largest living coral reef aquarium. Hours Mon to Sat 12pm to 8pm and Sun 12pm to 6pm. Add To Cart . Black Tip Reef Shark (California Excluded) $3,299.99. As an adult, it requires at least a 360 gallon or larger aquarium. The zebra female lays fertilized eggs in tough capsules covered with tufts of filaments, which attach the eggs to the seafloor.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eActual Egg Size 4-6\"\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eActual Shark Pup: 6-8\"\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAdult Maximum Size:\u003c\/strong\u003e 38\"\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eCare Level: Moderate - Expert\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eTemperament : \u003cspan\u003e Aggressive\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eFeeding\u003c\/strong\u003e:\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eCarnivore\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003eMinimum Tank Size\u003c\/span\u003e: 200g\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003eReef Compatible\u003c\/span\u003e: With Caution (Will eat small fish and inverts) \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eScientific Name\u003c\/strong\u003e: \u003cspan\u003eStegostomatidae\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWater Conditions:\u003cspan\u003e 65-75\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eF, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cem\u003eThe Fish pictured here are representative only and the livestock you receive may vary in pattern, coloration and shape.\u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e"}, DEEPBLUEAQUARIUMS LFS - Store Address Zebra sharks hunt at night; in the daytime, they usually rest quietly on the bottom, “standing” on their pectoral (side) fins. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com. Theories to explain this anomaly include that bamboo sharks have both male and female organs, female bamboo sharks perform parthenogenesis (which is producing a fertilized egg with no male organs), and female bamboo sharks can carry previously deposited sperm for long periods of time. These were cleaned at local military bases, loaded onto barges for transport, and pushed off at their final destination. I bought this shark egg at a local fish store I go to and they had the usual Brown Banded Bamboo shark egg, but next to it was this egg and it's about double the size, same color, same transparency (so almost impossible to see through unless you have a light), so of course the type of person I am, I got curious, so I bought it.. Though it lacks dorsal fins, it does have two barbed pectoral fins and a set of bony flukes. A two-metre-long grey reef shark suddenly looms from the blackness and shoots along the sandy channel beside us, dwarfing two whitetip reef sharks alongside it. To reproduce, male sharks use claspers (modifications of the pelvic fins) to transfer sperm into the female’s reproductive tract. That long tail is unusual for a shark. The Shark Egg is hardy. 5611 Willowcrest Ave Shark eggs are protected by a special case, also known as a mermaid’s purse, when they are laid. Seattle, Washington--(Newsfile Corp. - December 3, 2020) - Wellness.Global, a Seattle-based company building the world's first intelligent wellness concierge, announced today a North American partnership with REEF Technology to allow consumers to acquire health and wellness products on-demand, using REEF's extensive real estate portfolio and last block fulfillment network. NOW THIS IS GOING TO BE EXCITING!! Shark Egg - Chiloscyllium Punctatum - Cat Shark - Banded Cat Shark Egg One of the most common sharks kept in aquariums, the Black Banded Cat shark is a very popular choice for a fish only system. {"id":4536091017329,"title":"Zebra Shark Egg","handle":"zebra-shark-egg","description":"\u003cp\u003eZebra sharks are Long and sleek,\u003cb\u003e \u003c\/b\u003ecan wriggle into reef crevices and caves to hunt for their favorite food. Instead, they feed on their egg’s yolk supply, other unfertilized eggs or even the embryos of their brothers and sisters. Within this family of sharks, females lay eggs in varying methods. Zebra sharks hunt at night; in the daytime, they usually rest quietly on the bottom, “standing” on their pectoral (side) fins. Sign up for our newsletter and be the first to know about coupons and special promotions. Some species of carpet sharks do, however, have live births. They haven't lost one yet. Of the approximately 400 species of sharks, about 40% lay eggs. Egg-Laying Sharks . As a result, their ability to survive and reproduce affects all ocean wildlife. To reproduce, male sharks use claspers (modifications of the pelvic fins) to transfer sperm into the female’s reproductive tract. This article takes a closer look at egg-laying shark species. Additionally, these species share similar reproductive behavior in that they practice internal fertilization. This extra nutrition during the embryonic development stage helps the shark to hatch with a high level of maturity, which works to ensure a greater chance of survival for the newly hatched young. Do Mammals Lay Eggs? They can up the sticker $25 - 30 because it is hatched. $49.99. A shark's skeleton is composed of cartilage, rather than bone. Compare. Find Shark egg and rock fish at California underwater reef Stock Images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations, and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. The bullhead shark is considered a relatively small shark species. This role places sharks at the top of the food chain, which means their presence controls the population size of species located further down the food chain. The pups’ length at … If you get lucky you might end up with a grey bamboo. Carpet sharks inhabit all of oceans of the world, although this species is primarily concentrated in the Indo-Pacific region. This role places sharks at the top of the food chain, which means their presence controls the population size of species located further down the food chain. Animals That Lay Eggs - Oviparous Animals. … It requires sand as the substrate in the aquarium, as the abdomen is easily scratched by a coarser substrate, thus causing infection. Shark babies, also known as pups, are therefore more independent at birth and do not require extra care. $399.99. - BA0KM8 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Reef Compatible: With Caution (Will eat small fish and inverts), Water Conditions: 65-75F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025. Store Number (818) 934-9716 - Store Bamboo sharks, both the whitespotted and brown banded varieties, are oviparous as well. In other cases, shark egg cases sink to the bottom of the ocean, where they rest under rocks or other ocean floor debris. Due to Covid-19 Pandemic Livestock Is Limited & Some Prices Have Increased. The eggs were laid by an epaulette shark and aquarists are hoping they are all viable and will eventually hatch out. Download this stock image: Shark egg at California underwater kelp forest reef - FK0XRJ from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Atlantic Shovelnose Shark AKA Atlantic Guitarfish (Rhinobatos lentiginosus) These … The difference in shark reproductive behavior is that some sharks give birth to live babies. This unique characteristic places all sharks within the same fish family. Compare. I found a white spotted bamboo a few months ago and a few weeks ago I got an eppie egg. Bullhead sharks are recognized for their swimming style, which is generally described as a back-and-forth type of wiggling. Duck diving on Moore Reef during its November 2019 coral spawning A spectacularly flame-patterned eel, thicker than an arm, slithers from its hole in a reef outcrop. The largest of these species can reach lengths of up to 5.5 feet, while the smallest of these species reach only 2 feet in length. When the eggs are laid, they are in a protective egg case (which sometimes washes up on the beach and is commonly called a "mermaid's purse"). Instead of placing the eggs straight into the shark nursery, she keeps them inside her. More than 400 shark species live throughout the oceans of the world. One of the most notable differences among sharks is size. Thanks This will allow the egg to sink at the bottom of the tank. Zebra sharks are Long and sleek, can wriggle into reef crevices and caves to hunt for their favorite food. A shark egg! Shark eggs [Bamboo] Rays and Skates. High quality Shark Egg gifts and merchandise. All bullhead shark species prefer to inhabit warm, tropical waters and search for food along the bottom of the ocean floor among rocky reef areas. Before giving birth, female Blacktip Reef sharks will incubate their young for 16 months. Juveniles are dark brown with white zebralike stripes, but adults are tan with brown leopardlike spots. If air bubbles are present in the egg for any reason, they can be expelled by turning the egg upright and then gently tap the ends. The main attraction is a two and a half million litre coral reef exhibit that replicates a natural reef ecosystem. Compare. The female whitespotted bamboo shark lays an egg that is around 5 inches in length and takes between 14 and 15 weeks to hatch. Lot Of 4 Childrens Books Enormous Egg Shark Beneath The Reef Double Trouble. To reproduce, male sharks use claspers (modifications of the pelvic fins) to transfer sperm into the female’s reproductive tract. The term “carpet shark” actually refers to a number of shark species that belong to the Orectolobidae family. Shark egg cases are oval in shape, usually with long tendrils at both corners of each end. Bullhead sharks are another egg-laying shark species. Coral catshark eggs are also available fairly often. The five corkscrew egg-cases were discovered in the aquarium’s giant tropical ocean display. Sharks make up an important part of the ocean ecosystem as primary predators. Mollusks, crustaceans, and sea urchins make up the majority of its diet. Due to its availability, and combined with the relatively low cost, these Shark eggs are the most common shark kept in an aquarium. Shark eggs are filled with a yolk that serves as a source of nutrition for the developing shark. It is grey in color with orange patterns on its head and on the peripherals of each bone plate. These sharks are known as viviparous. A cluster of golden shark eggs has gone on show in a special nursery display at Newquay’s Blue Reef Aquarium. Bat Ray - Myliobatis californica. In general, sharks reach reproductive maturity between the ages of 12 and 15 years. Because of the crappiness of the store, the shark eggs never sell and they always end up with the shark living in a 20 gallon. Interestingly, researchers discovered that a female in captivity at the Belle Island Aquarium in the US state of Michigan laid several eggs, of which 3 developed fully and hatched. Researchers have observed that in some cases, the female works to more completely protect the egg by pushing it between rocks at the bottom of the ocean floor in order to hide it from potential predators. Researchers report that around 40% of all sharks in the world are oviparous, or egg-laying. View %{phrase} images {{searchText.groupByEventToggleImages()}} {{searchText.groupByEventToggleEvents()}} {{searchText.groupByEventToggleImages()}} {{searchText.groupByEventToggleEvents()}} Browse 100 shark egg stock photos and images available, or search for baby shark or great white shark to find … The zebra shark egg (Stegostoma fasciatum), on the other hand, ... new underwater art museum in the waters off north Queensland is inspiring a new love for the embattled Great Barrier Reef. This independence means that adult life begins the moment they hatch, when they go on to swim, migrate, hunt, and eventually, reproduce. Zebra sharks hunt at night; in the daytime, they usually rest quietly on the bottom, “standing” on their pectoral (side) fins. As previously mentioned, 40% of all shark species lay eggs. I have a very sub-par LFS that gets these coral banded cat shark eggs in regularly. Only 1 or 2 eggs are fertilized at a time, which contributes to slow population growth and recovery. Actual Egg Size 3-4" Actual Shark Pup: 4-6" Adult Maximum Size: 40" Care Level: Moderate - Expert Temperament : Aggressive Feeding: Carnivore Minimum Tank Size: 200g Reef Compatible: With Caution (Will eat small fish and inverts) Scientific Name: Chiloscyllium sp. The egg case seen here had its tendrils strongly wrapped around a bamboo coral (Suborder Calcaxonia). The zebra female lays fertilized eggs in tough capsules covered with tufts of filaments, which attach the eggs to the seafloor. This type of shark is divided into 9 distinct species, all of which belong to the Heterodontidae fish family. Sharks make up an important part of the ocean ecosystem as primary predators. Some of the many egg-laying shark species include carpet sharks, bamboo sharks, zebra sharks, and bullhead sharks. The constitution of shark eggs is different from that of other fish eggs, which are not comprised of yolk. This event occurred after she had been isolated from other males for approximately 6 years. Shipped with USPS Media Mail. This is called oviparity. I want to buy a Port Jackson Shark egg. Compare. All carpet sharks have 2 dorsal fins, 5 gills, and a small mouth opening. In other cases, the egg is allowed to develop for a longer while inside of the mother shark, and therefore hatching time is shorter. The Rock-a-Nore Road wildlife attraction is inviting people to try and spot special shark egg-cases hidden around the aquarium. The female bullhead shark lays slightly pointed, oval-shaped eggs, which she pushes down between cracks in rocks at the bottom of the ocean. That long tail is unusual for a shark. Some sharks are as small as a few inches in length, while others can reach a length of more than 30 feet. Blacktip Reef Shark Reproduction Reproduction is viviparous (the embryo develops inside the body of the mother, as opposed to outside in an egg), with 2 to 4 pups in a litter. Compare. Juveniles are dark brown with white zebralike stripes, but adults are tan with brown leopardlike spots. Some female carpet sharks deposit eggs into the protective egg case, while others simply lay eggs with no protective case. The egg case has tendrils that allow it to attach to a substrate such as corals, seaweed, or the ocean bottom. Which Mammals Lay Eggs? Other sharks, however, lay eggs and are known as oviparous. whitetip reef shark; 100 Shark Egg Premium High Res Photos. "We are … North Hollywood, CA 91601 - The squarespot anthias is the ocean’s pocket mirror . Hatching time for the egg will be approximately 1 - 4 weeks depending on development stage and environment in the home aquarium. The Boneshark is a large shark-like creature plated with a thick, hard segmented exoskeleton, featuring a large head and irregular teeth that, instead of protruding from the gums, are an extension of its exoskeleton. White Bamboo Shark White Bamboo Shark EggScientific classificationKingdom:AnimaliaPhylum:ChordataClass:ChondrichthyesSubclass:ElasmobranchiiOrder:OrectolobiformesFamily:HemiscylliidaeGenus:ChiloscylliumSpecies:C. plagiosumFAST FACTSScientific Name: Chiloscyllium plagiosum Size: Up to 33 inches long, Males. The Fish pictured here are representative only and the livestock you receive may vary in pattern, coloration and shape. Pre-Order Now. Sometimes these egg cases have long strands hanging from them, which serve as an anchor and allow the egg case to attach to seaweed and coral at the bottom of the ocean floor. Its innovative exhibits provide a real life encounter of the Great Barrier Reef. Inspired designs on t-shirts, posters, stickers, home decor, and more by independent artists and designers from around the world. Whitetip Reef Shark [Pups-Adults] SPECIAL ORDER : PIC TO COME: Zebra Horn Shark (Heterodontus zebra) [pups to adults] RARE : NOT THREATENED: Zebra Bullhead Shark (Stegostoma fasciatum) RARE [Pups-Sub-adults] Adult by mjwinoz: Pup with Zebra Strips by Liné1: VULNERABLE. Despite belonging to the same family and sharing similar skeletons, shark species are characterized by a number of physical differences. The Artificial Reef Program used four types of obsolete Army armored vehicles as artificial reef materials off the New Jersey coast. To reproduce, male sharks use claspers (modifications of the pelvic fins) to transfer sperm into the female’s reproductive tract. Bamboo Cat Shark Egg. If the yoke sac is gone completely the shark can be removed from the egg if needed. The zebra female lays fertilized eggs in tough capsules covered with tufts of filaments, which attach the eggs to the seafloor. Once the Army had disposed of its excess inventory, the program ceased, around 1999. Thank You For Your Support & Stay Safe. I love that they are so tiny and we will be able to document the entire process. In fact, the largest fish species in the world is the whale shark, which grows to between 32 and 55 feet in length. Download this stock image: California swell shark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum) egg case on reef at Santa Cruz Island in California Channel Islands. Adding sharks to my aquarium! The mermaid’s purse is often slightly transparent, which allows the development of the embryo to be observed. The LFS doesn't really mind though. After laying, the female picks up the auger -shaped egg cases and wedges them into crevices to protect them from predators. This fertilization behavior means that male sharks release sperm inside female sharks to fertilize eggs. The baby sharks are not connected to their mum through an umbilical cord. You won't know until it hatches. Condition is Good. Bamboo shark eggs are cheap and easily available. artificial reef, barge Built: 1989 Specs: ( 62 x 22 ft ) Sponsor: Berman family, United Jewish Community Fund of Harrisburg Sunk: Friday Sept 13, 2002 – Little Egg Artificial Reef GPS: 39°28.560′ -74°11.300′ Reproduction is oviparous, with females laying up to 24 eggs from February to April. Horn sharks are harmless unless harassed, and are readily maintained in captivity. This shark reproduction method, the female shark develops eggs like the oviparous method.
Light Wood Floors What Color Walls, Best Deep Conditioner For Low Porosity Hair, Snow Meaning In Urdu, Apple Orange Pineapple Smoothie, Moxy Amsterdam Airport, Chansey Shiny Rate Pokemon Go, Advantages And Disadvantages Of Written Sources Of History, Kfc Vs Chick-fil-a,